At the centre of all galaxies, there are giant black holes. These objects, known as active galactic nuclei, are some of the most powerful objects in the Universe. Sam Grafton-Waters, a third-year PhD student at MSSL, who studies these, tells us more.
One of the powerhouse X-ray telescopes of our time, XMM-Newton, has just recently turned 20 years old. MSSL has been heavily involved in this mission. Sam Grafton-Waters, a third year PhD student at the lab use uses data from XMM to study active galactic nuclei, tells us more about this enduring satellite, and looks to the future.
The distortion of the images of distant galaxies by the gravity of the large-scale structure of the Universe can be a powerful tool to help us understand our Universe. By measuring this distortion, known as cosmic shear, we can constrain cosmological parameters. However, in our analyses, we make certain approximations that may no longer be valid. Anurag Deshpande, a second-year PhD student tells us about two such effects; the reduced shear approximation and magnification bias.
Many of our Astro PhD students partake in other projects outside of their area of research. Ahlam Al Qasim (a 2nd year PhD student) and Aisha AlMannaei (a 1st year PhD student) are both working on Cubesat RAAD (Rapid Acquisition Atmospheric Detector), a mission recently funded by the UAE Space Agency through winning the Mini-satellite competition held last year. The competition was seeking out proposals from university students across the UAE for a science mission to be integrated on a Cubesat, with a launch opportunity in 2020. Their mission is aimed at studying the phenomenon of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs), which are highly energetic events emitted via thundercloud activity in Earth’s atmosphere. Ahlam is the student PI of the science case and TGF simulations, and Aisha is the student PI for the detector development. Here, they discuss how the project was initiated and eventually extended to a fully funded mission, and what their current roles are.
Not all PhD students join us directly after finishing their Master degree studies. Anurag Deshpande, a first year PhD student, spent a year working at the European Space Agency (ESA), as a Young Graduate Trainee (YGT). With the application process for the next round of YGTs now open, he discusses his time working on the James Webb Space Telescope, how he found the experience, and how it continues to influence him in his PhD research.
Cosmology is in pretty bad shape; we don’t know what makes up 95% of the Universe. Galaxies spin too fast and the expansion of the Universe is unexpectedly accelerating. Cosmologists deal with this by inferring the existence of dark matter and dark energy. These form the backbone of the Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) model. The problem is that we have no physical explanation for the existence of these two components.
The release of Gaia radial (line-of-sight) velocities in DR2 represents for me the first fruits of 17 years of work in the Gaia project. Such is the timescale of a mission as demanding, and different, as Gaia. I knew from the start, at mission adoption in 2001, that this would be a remarkable endeavour, not only from the scientific and technical perspective, but also from the long term working relationships and comradery that engaging deeply with it would entail.
The Swift UVOT team at MSSL find surprisingly bright UV emission from the first ever visible counterpart to a gravitational wave event. Here is their story… from Paul Kuin
The Swift satellite, part of which was built at the Mullard Space Science Laboratory, detected the remarkable Gamma-ray Burst (GRB) 130427A about 3 years ago. This burst has the highest fluence (energy divided by surface) of the over 1000 events detected by Swift and indeed by any space observatory for 30 years.
Figure 1: Top: Gaia’s launch on a Soyuz-2 rocket (image credit: ESA – S. Corvaja, 2013). Bottom: Tim Peake’s launch on a Soyuz-FG rocket (image credit: http://www.inmarsat.com/tim-peake)
Two years ago today (Saturday 19th December 2015), ESA’s Gaia satellite was launched into space from South America by a Soyuz launch vehicle, operated by Arianespace (see previous MSSL Astro blog for more details. Gaia lifted off at 9.12am UTC (6.12am in French Guiana). On that day, many members of the lab watched the event live on TV and celebrated the successful launch with a champagne breakfast in the MSSL Common Room. One year on and we were back in the MSSL Common Room, celebrating Gaia’s first birthday in space with a fantastic Gaia-shaped cake, decorated to look like Gaia, made by MSSL chef Sue Ford (see previous MSSL Astro blog). Two years on and the launch anniversary falls on a Saturday so we are having a virtual celebration with this blog.